CSX Corporation was formed on November 1, 1980. Subsidiary CSX Transportation absorbed Seaboard System Railroad on July 1, 1986, and Chesapeake & Ohio, the only corporate survivor of the Chessie System Railroads, on August 31, 1987.
After the failure of Penn Central in 1970, the government formed the United States Railway Association in 1973 to develop a plan to save railroading in the Northeast. The result: Consolidated Rail Corp., which on April 1, 1976, took over the properties of PC and six smaller roads. On August 22, 1998, Norfolk Southern and CSX purchased 58% and 42% percent of Conrail stock, respectively, dividing the railroad between them. Each owner began operating their portion on June 1, 1999. In three jointly-owned “shared asset” areas, Conrail still exists as a local freight provider.
Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac began in 1834 at Richmond. Link to Washington completed in 1870 by a Pennsylvania Railroad subsidiary. On July 31, 1901, six connecting railroads gained equal interest of 64 percent of RF&P through newly created Richmond-Washington Company-PRR, ACL, B&O, C&O, SAL, and Southern-and the Washington-Quantico segment was turned over to RF&P. Through mergers, CSX came to own 80 percent of other roads’ RF&P stake and Norfolk Southern 20 percent; one-fourth had been owned since the beginning by Virginia, eventually through its Retirement System. In a complex deal involving the state that separated RF&P’s railroad and its real estate, CSX Transportation acquired the railroad and absorbed operations at the end of 1991.
Pittsburgh & Lake Erie was chartered in 1875. New York Central subscribed to 15 percent of the stock, gained control in 1889, and thereafter operated it as part of the NYC system. When successor Penn Central-which owned 92 percent of P&LE stock-went bankrupt in 1970, P&LE went independent, and in 1976 it stayed out of Conrail. New private owners, caught by the steel industry’s decline, offered P&LE for sale in the 1980’s. Several scenarios faltered over labor issues, and P&LE in 1991 sold part of its main line, on which B&O had been a long-time tenant, to CSX. On September 11, 1992, CSX bought the remainder through subsidiary Three Rivers Railway, later dissolved.
Chessie System was incorporated on February 26, 1973 and became the parent of B&O, C&O, and Western Maryland on June 15, 1973. Chessie System and SCL Industries, parent of Seaboard Coast Line, merged to form CSX Corporation on November 1, 1980. (B&O took over WM on May 1, 1983, and C&O took over B&O on April 30, 1987, becoming, for corporate purposes, the only Chessie System railroad. CSX Transportation merged C&O on August 31, 1987.)
Chartered as Baltimore, Carroll & Frederick Rail Road on May 27, 1852. Name was soon changed to Western Maryland, and opened in November 1862. B&O acquired a strong minority interest in 1927, and B&O and C&O acquired full control in 1967. WM went into Chessie System in 1973, and B&O formally merged WM on May 1, 1983.
Baltimore & Ohio was chartered on February 28, 1827, and opened on May 24, 1830, as the first common-carrier railroad in the U.S., and was the first to offer scheduled passenger and freight service to the public. C&O acquired control in May 1962. On April 30, 1987, B&O, at age 160 the nation’s oldest railroad, ceased to exist as it was merged into Chesapeake & Ohio, by then a subsidiary of CSX Transportation.
Chesapeake & Ohio was created in the 1868 consolidation of the Virginia Central, whose ancestors dated to 1836, and the Covington & Ohio, chartered in 1853. C&O acquired control of the Hocking Valley in Ohio in 1911, and of Baltimore & Ohio in 1962. C&O became a subsidiary of the new Chessie System entity on June 17, 1973.
Formed January 1, 1900, by consolidation of Chicago & West Michigan (which dated from 1872); Detroit, Grand Rapids & Western; and Flint & Pere Marquette. The Van Sweringen brothers of Cleveland acquired control in 1924, and their C&O took control in 1928. Pere Marquette was merged into C&O on June 6, 1947.
Seaboard System Railroad (SBD) was created on December 29, 1982, by the merger of Louisville & Nashville and Seaboard Coast Line. SBD was absorbed by CSX Transportation on July 1, 1986.
South & Western Railroad incorporated in 1905, renamed Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio in 1908. Leased jointly by Atlantic Coast Line and Louisville & Nashville in 1924, who named the operating organization, an unincorporated entity, the Clinchfield Railroad Company. Creation of Seaboard System Railroad on December 29, 1982, rendered the separate Clinchfield entity unnecessary.
Chartered in 1883 as Georgia Railroad, became Georgia Railroad & Banking Co. in 1836. Leased jointly to Louisville & Nashville and Central of Georgia in 1881; CofG interest later passed to L&N, which assigned it to Atlantic Coast Line. In 1983 the new Seaboard System Railroad bought the Georgia Railroad from the banking firm and merged the operation.
Atlanta & La Grange chartered in 1847 and opened in 1854, renamed Atlanta & West Point in 1857. Montgomery Rail Road organized in 1854, and its successors taken over by Western Rail Road of Alabama in 1870. Georgia Railroad in 1875 acquired stock in A&WP and jointly purchased, with Central of Georgia, the WofA, which in 1883 was reorganized as Western Railway of Alabama. A&WP and WofA operated together as the “West Point Route,” and were closely affiliated with the Georgia Railroad. The two WPR corporate shells did survive, for a time, the 1983 Seaboard System amalgamation of operations.
Louisville & Nashville was chartered by the State of Kentucky in 1850 to link its namesake cities. Control acquired by Atlantic Coast Line in 1902. ACL successor Seaboard Coast Line merged with L&N on December 29, 1982, to form Seaboard System Railroad, a subsidiary of CSX Corporation.
Evansville & Illinois chartered in 1849 to build north from the Ohio River. System completed from Chicago south in 1872, sold at foreclosure in 1877 as Chicago & Eastern Illinois. Missouri Pacific began merger discussions in 1959. After MP, Louisville & Nashville, and Illinois Central each petitioned the ICC for C&EI control, it ruled in 1963 for MP, stipulating that MP sell L&N the Evansville line, which occurred in 1969. L&N also bought a half-interest in the line from Woodland Jct., Ill., where the ownership split, into Chicago. Missouri Pacific merged C&EI on October 15, 1976. Union Pacific absorbed MP on December 22, 1982, and absorbed operations but didn’t formally merge MP out of existence until 1997.
New Albany & Salem chartered in 1847 and opened in southern Indiana in 1851. Reorganized as Louisville, New Albany & Chicago in 1873. System formed an “X” crossing at Monon, Ind., and slogan “Monon Route” (pronounced MOE-non) was first used in 1882. Reorganized as Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville in 1897. Name changed to Monon Railroad on January 10, 1956. Acquired by Louisville & Nashville on July 31, 1971.
Nashville & Chattanooga incorporated in 1845, opened in 1851, and connected in 1854 at Chattanooga with the Western & Atlantic, which was owned by the State of Georgia, having been chartered in 1836 and opened in 1850. Renamed Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis in 1873. Louisville & Nashville bought a majority interest in 1879, and merged NC&StL on August 30, 1957. Many consider this the beginning of the “modern merger movement.”
Created July 1, 1967, by the merger of Seaboard Air Line and Atlantic Coast Line, under discussion for nine years. About 1974 SCL began advertising itself, Louisville & Nashville, Clinchfield, Georgia Railroad, and West Point Route as “Family Lines System,” but FLS was not a corporate entity. SCL and Chessie System became subsidiaries of CSX Corporation on November 1, 1980. Family Lines monicker was dropped when SCL and L&N merged on December 29, 1982, to form Seaboard System Railroad.
Piedmont & Northern was created in the 1914 consolidation of two physically separated 2-year-old Duke Power electric interurbans, Piedmont Traction Co. in North Carolina and Greenville, Spartanburg & Anderson in South Carolina. P&N replaced electric operation with diesel 1951-1958, and was acquired by Seaboard Coast Line on July 1, 1969.
Portsmouth & Roanoke Rail Road formed in 1832, reorganized as Seaboard & Roanoke in 1846. Several subsequent mergers, including the Raleigh & Augusta Air-Line being acquired by the Raleigh & Gaston in 1871, by 1881 created a collection known as Seaboard Air-Line System. Merger of Seaboard Air Line Railroad with paralleling Atlantic Coast Line, proposed in 1958, took place on July 1, 1967, creating Seaboard Coast Line.
Oldest ancestor, Petersburg Railroad, opened in 1833; it and Richmond & Petersburg merged in March 1898 and in November 1898 took the name Atlantic Coast Line. Merger with paralleling Seaboard Air Line Railroad, proposed in 1958, took place on July 1, 1967, creating Seaboard Coast Line.
Charleston & Western Carolina was built by the Georgia Railroad & Banking Co. as the Port Royal & Augusta. Control passed to Central of Georgia in 1881, to the state of South Carolina in 1894, and to Atlantic Coast Line in 1897. Merged into ACL on December 31, 1959.